How to change the UPN on Windows domain

How to change the UPN on Windows domain.

When you are ready to migrate to o365 and realize that your domain is not routable because more than 10 years ago when the domain was created they used .local extension, now a lot of years later you have to fix it.

Another scenario is when the company A acquires Company B and its time to unify everything, you have to change UPN also.

In my opinion is more common the first scenario, the second one is an option though.

The process to complete this setting is as follow:

In your domain controller go to Active Directory Domains and Trusts

Right click on Active Directory domains and trusts and select properties

The UPN suffixes window will appear and here we can add an alternative Suffix as shown below:

Click on Add, then OK to register the alternative domain name.

Now we have another UPN suffix in our domain, we can change this domain name either to specific users or the whole domain users.

In this case lets change to a specific user. To do so, open Active Directory Users and Computers and find a user to change the UPN.

Right click and select properties, then click on Account tab and click on the domain name

As you can see on the figure, now we have available the new domain name, then select the new UPN suffix and click on OK.

Lets validate the change using PowerShell:

As you can see on the UPN attribute, we have now the correct domain name.

So, if you need to change the same for all users in your domain you can do in different ways.

Here you have an script to do so.

# How to change the UPN by Tony Gonzalez

#Lets create a variable to assign the users to affect.

#In case you can modify only few users, you can assign those users to this variable

$Users = Get-ADUser -Properties * -Filter * -SearchBase “OU=UK,DC=TonySolutions,DC=com”

#$Users = Get-ADUser -Properties * -Filter *

Write-Host “The total of users to change the UPN are: $($Users.Count)” -ForegroundColor Yellow

Write-Host “Are you sure to continue? (Y/N)” -ForegroundColor Yellow

$Continue = Read-Host

if($Continue -like ‘y’)


    foreach($User in $Users)


        $NewUserUPN =  $User.UserPrincipalName.Replace(“”,””)

        #Notification about the user we are working on

        $Name = $User.SamAccountName

        Write-Host “Working with $($Name)”

        #Applying the change

        Set-ADUser $Name -UserPrincipalName $NewUserUPN

        #Validating the change

        $Sam = $User.SamAccountName

        Get-ADUser $Sam -Properties UserPrincipalName





 Write-Host “No changes made to the $($Users.Count) Users” -ForegroundColor Green


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How to configure a NAT switch on Hyper-V

Everyone has used a lab environment either to test new technologies or to have a safe environment to test scripts or any other configuration, for some hypervisors like VMWare you need to have licenses to use networking devices like switches.

On Oracle VirtualBox you need to have advance networking and Linux skills to create some Virtual machines using Linux as Operating system and then create the routers and switches.

After you have this Linux computers and configure the Switch or router role then configure your internal network.

Another option is creating a Windows server with the NAT role installed, but again we need to create another computer that needs storage on the Hard drive, memory and CPU from the host, sometimes we don’t have enough resources for this.

Fortunately, we have another free option using Hyper-V and creating a NAT switch, in my experience using this option my environment is faster than using another computer as NAT server.

NOTE: If you need help to install the Hyper-V feature on Windows 10 follow this process How to configure Hyper-V on Windows 10

This is my virtual environment with three virtual computers connected to a default switch:

The complete design is as follow:

That means the host cannot provide internet access to the Virtual machines because we are assigning a different IP range.

In order to solve this problem lets create a new virtual switch and configure it as NAT switch.

To complete the configuration open PowerShell ISE as administrator on the host computer.

We are creating the switch as shown below:

The next sped is create the virtual interface for this network

And finally, we need to create the network

Make sure you connect the network interface of the Virtual machines (In my case VM1, VM2, VM3 and VM4) to the NAT Switch, immediately these computers will have internet access.

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How to enable Hyper-V on Windows 10

Now we can use Hyper-V as hypervisor on Widows 10 and its very easy enable this feature. We have different ways to do this, the first its via GUI and the second, of course using PowerShell.

To enable this feature using GUI lets follow these steps:

  1. From Run menu type control to open control panel

In Control panel go to programs and features

then Turn windows feature on or off

Check Hyper-V and click on Ok

Click on restart and the Hyper-V feature has been added.

Now lets add the same windows feature but using PowerShell, you need to open PowerShell as administrator, then run this line:

PS C:\> Get-WindowsOptionalFeature -Online -FeatureName “*Hyper*” | Enable-WindowsOptionalFeature -Online

And confirm to restart your computer, as shown below:

Thanks for reading and I hope this helps.

Where are the scripts in Exchange 2016?

Where are the scripts in Exchange 2016?
   Exchange has a folder with a complete suite of scripts that we use in the day-to-day managing activities or sometimes we are going to use only once, for example in a migration process if we need to migrate public folders to Exchange 2016 we need to use some scripts from this suite.

   In addition, there are scripts to put in maintenance mode the server in case that we need to stop the DAG due to reboot the server in order to complete a patching process or shutdown the server for another different reason.

   As well as exist the script to stop the DAG, as well exists the script to stop the maintenance mode or resume the mailbox databases copies.

   Other scripts are used to security and hygiene activities for example enable or disable antimalware, install or uninstall antispam agents.

   In the same suite we can find scripts to get metrics about the exchange organization, they have the capability to read information from the event logs of the servers in a DAG to gather information on databases mount, moves and failover over some range of time.

   In some cases, the script has a xml file with the same name with help information, this file is very helpful because you can see all the details related to the script execution, for example what king of parameters you need to include in the script execution; also,  what kind of information you need as output (data in the console, html or csv file, etc).

  The path of the scripts in Exchange 2016 is C:\Program Files\Microsoft\Exchange Server\V15\Scripts (in case you have installed Exchange in the C: drive) or you can use the exchange variable $exinstall who will send you to this directory:

   As well you can use the exchange variable $exscripts to go directly to the scripts folder in Exchange 2016
This is the directory where you can see all scripts into the server

Remember always test the scripts in another environment different to production.

Regards – Cheers – phir melenge – Hasta luego

Some special operators in PowerShell: $($Variable), @( ), &, S_., %, ?

There are some operators that they are not common in PowerShell and we have problems to figure out the logic when we are reading a script written by another person.

For example $($Variable) operator. This is a subexpression operator that always will evaluate first the expression contained into the parenthesis and return the value as an array, and therefore you can use this information directly. Let’s see the follow example:

$c = Aduser 430001150
The variable $C contains all the information for this Active Directory object, and therefore If I want to know only the first name and last name I can write this:

Write-Host “The firstname is: $($c.GivenName)-ForegroundColor Yellow
Write-Host “The firstname is: $($c.Surname)-ForegroundColor Yellow
And the output will be:
The first name is: Tony
The last name is: Gonzalez

@() Array expression

Returns the result of one or more statements as an array, when you have the construct @() you are creating an array without any elements at all. Otherwise, if you add elements to the array they will have an index;

$array = @()   #We declare this variable as array
$array = @(1,2,5,6,9,”Hello”,”World”)   #We are adding elements to the array, the first element has the index 0, in this case has the value 1.
If we want to know what information contains this array:

PS C:\> $array
& Call operator. We use this operator to run a command, script, or script block. For example:

PS C:\> $b = “Get-ChildItem”
If we execute this value to see the result, will be the string stored in quotes.

PS C:\> $b
But if we put the call operator & we are going to get another result

PS C:\> & $b
    Directory: C:\
Mode                LastWriteTime     Length Name                                                                                                                                                
—-                ————-     —— —-                                                                                                                                                 
d—-         12/7/2016   2:52 PM            Dell                                                                                                                                                  
% Is an Alias for the command let ForEach-Object is a loop who returns each pipeline object one after the other. Which means that you can use both in a sentence.

? Is an alias for the command let Where-Object. We use this sentence to select an object from a collection.

In both aliases we can use $_. To reference to a filed into the result. For example:

PS C:\> Get-ChildItem “C:\” | ?{$_.Name -eq “temp”}
    Directory: C:\
Mode                LastWriteTime     Length Name                                  
—-                ————-     —— —-                                  
d—-          2/1/2018  11:51 AM            temp                                   

These are only some of the operator that sometimes we do not know how they mean when we are analyzing a script that has been created by another person, but obviously, there are much more. 

I will put another post with a little more.